3 types of prescription errors

Communication with the physician or other clinician managing on-going care post fracture for men and women aged 50 years and older, 0092. Telephone prescription errors in two community pharmacies. One year must be added from the date on which the restriction has stopped and the new prescription date is 14 January 2013. Provide toileting regimen for confused patients (eg, check patients every 2 hours). It has been observed that many people have the tendency to think that “laboratory tests are always correct and useful.” This is not true and all tests have their limitations. Ask the patient if there is any drug that should not be prescribed for any reason. According to AHRQ a patient fall is defined as “an unplanned descent to the floor with or without injury to the patient.” Such falls can result in fractures, lacerations, or internal bleeding, requiring additional healthcare. Ask about old drugs (prescription and OTC) as well as current drugs the patient is taking. Almost half of the fatal medication errors occurred in people over the age of 60. ... tain types of errors in order to prevent patient harm. This includes the following: No clinician working alone, regardless of how talented, can prevent all falls. The protocol suggests having the labeled radiology images present and available in the operating room at the time of the surgery. 3. Recommendations for Acute and Long-Term Care. Far too often people who have never been in the heat of battle question the hearts of those in the direct line of fire and impose ridiculous and illogical mandates on their staff. Poor communication between laboratory and healthcare professionals is the main issue affecting quality in the pre- and post-analytic phases, and researchers note few in either group receive specific training in good communication techniques. Ensure adequate cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces and reusable devices, especially items likely to be contaminated with feces and surfaces that are touched frequently. Find out how the participants in the Center for Transforming Healthcare’s seventh project are working to keep patients safe from falls. Friday, April 18, 2014. In 2015 total medical costs for falls were more than $50 billion and Medicare and Medicaid shouldered 75% of these costs (CDC, 2017d). Check the patient’s ability to breathe on own every day so that the patient can be taken off of the ventilator as soon as possible. It is not spread through the air by coughing or sneezing (CDC, 2011a). Additionally, the wrong dose, form, quantity, route (oral vs intravenous), concentration, or rate of admission could be used. Using pillows and products that relieve pressure (MedLine Plus, 2018), Conduct a pressure ulcer admission assessment for all patients, Reassess risk for all patients daily (IHI, 2019, 2011), 0045. The FDA may also issue communications alerting the public about a medication error safety issue with a variety of communications (FDA, 2018). Wear shoes that have firm, flat, non-slip soles. Use all five maximal sterile barrier precautions: Follow recommended central line maintenance practices. Patients who get a CLABSI have a fever and might also have red skin and soreness around the central line. Many medical advances are dependent on the ability to fight infections using antibiotics, including joint replacements, organ transplants, cancer therapy, and treatment of chronic diseases like diabetes, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis (CDC, 2018d). Ensure daily and terminal cleaning of patient rooms. Identify safety measures for bleeding-injury prevention. the prescription is written the medication is dispensed ... new types of errors, such as unintended alterations in dosing frequency. There is concern about these multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) as options for treating patients with these infections are often extremely limited, and MDRO infections are associated with increased lengths of stay, costs, and mortality. When tracking incorrectly entered prescriptions, 93% of the errors were intercepted by nurses, but two-thirds of them were recorded as prescribed rather than administered (Cho et al., 2014). If a drug is made in multiple strengths the labels of each container should be easy to differentiate. The second category of prescription error occurs when someone fails to follow the correct procedure. As with the more gen… In addition, they are the mostly costly HAI type, with an estimated annual cost of $3.3 billion, and are associated with 1 million additional inpatient-days annually (NHSN, 2019). To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, healthcare providers can do the following things: Detailed current guidance on diagnosing and managing VAP and VAEs is available from NHSN (2019). SSIs are the most common hospital-acquired infection, according to the CDC, accounting for more than 30% of all inpatient HAIs. Eighty-two percent of American adults take at least one medication and 29% take five or more—and the potential for medication events is likely to grow. The ED physician reviewed the patient's electronic medical record (EMR) and noted “PE” listed under past medical history, which raised his suspicion for the possibility of a new pulmonary embolus (PE). High-alert (or high-hazard) medications are those that are “most likely to cause significant harm to the patient even when used as intended.” However, some of these medications also have a higher volume of use than other medications. The inadequacy of the term ‘error’ to describe all of these is obvious. The tool is an innovative application that guides healthcare organizations through a step-by-step process to accurately measure their organization’s actual performance, identify their barriers to excellent performance, and direct them to proven solutions that are customized to address their particular barriers. In late November 2018, a lengthy investigation by the Tampa Bay Times into a pattern of deadly errors at All Children’s Heart Institute in Tampa, Florida, brought to light the many ways in which error can creep in and be compounded and we may not be prepared to question and report soon enough to prevent tragedy (McGrory & Bedi, 2018). Sit in chairs that do not move and have arm rests to help when you sit down and stand up. Another serious, not to say disastrous, case of medical error is the following. Studies have estimated that more than 300,000 patients receive mechanical ventilation in the United States each year. Examples of drug name abbreviations involved in medication errors include: Mistaken as diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (vaccine), Diluted tincture of opium, or deodorized tincture of opium (Paregoric), Mistaken as potassium chloride (The “H” is misinterpreted as “K”), Use complete drug name unless expressed as a salt of a drug, Mistaken as hydrocortisone (seen as HCT250 mg), Mistaken as tetracaine, Adrenalin, cocaine, tissue plasminogen activator, Activase (alteplase), Mistaken as TNKase (tenecteplase), or less often as another tissue plasminogen activator, Retavase (retaplase), Mistaken as sodium nitroprusside infusion, Mistaken as opposite of intended; mistakenly use incorrect symbol; “< 10” mistaken as “40”, Mistaken as the number 1 (e.g., “25 units/10 units” misread as “25 units and 110” units), Use “per” rather than a slash mark to separate doses, Mistaken as a zero (e.g., q2° seen as q 20), Use 0 or zero, or describe intent using whole words, Medication events (including adverse drug events/reactions), Documentation/computer errors (NQF, 2011; AHRQ, 2018; CMS, 2018; Joint Commission, 2016; NHSN, 2019). Clinicians cannot rely solely on technology to prevent errors in prescribing and administering of medications. These include: Which is preferred: alcohol-based hand sanitizer or washing with soap and water? Turn on the lights when you enter a room. If private rooms are not available, they can be placed in rooms (cohorted) with other CDI patients. The sooner a catheter is removed, the less likely the chance of infection. Ensure that the skin prep agent has completely dried before inserting the central line. Final regulations were published in 2003 (CDC, 2018h). Fall prevention involves managing a patient's underlying fall risk factors (eg., problems with walking and transfers, medication side effects, confusion, frequent toileting needs) while working within the hospital's physical design and environment. What tenants need to know about their lease, Avoiding security deposit pitfalls when renewing your lease, 7 key elements of an effective new employee orientation program, Drug use rises among US workers amidst the pandemic, What ‘business ghosting’ says about your leadership, and why real leaders don’t ghost, 5 digital marketing strategies to plan as the pandemic begins to shift, The tricks online retailers use to promote impulse shopping. Issues of test choice, patient information, specimen adequacy (in pre-phase), and values and interpretation (in post-phase) can involve many different healthcare professionals, and poor communication among them can result in errors, patient harm, and “inefficient and ineffective use of healthcare resources.” Errors also occur when clinicians choose and order tests; during specimen collection, including mislabeling, improper collection, and specimen contamination; in laboratory processing; and in results analysis and reporting (Wolcott et al., 2008). To reduce these errors, some investigators have developed modified prescription forms that prompt the prescriber to provide all the desired elements of a good prescription. 23 Tables 1, 2, and 3 list abbreviations and punctuation that have resulted in medication errors. No one can completely avoid the risk of resistant infections, but some people are at greater risk than others (eg, people with chronic illnesses). The third error occurred as the patient was posted for the surgical suite without preoperative imaging. In the 2013 CDC report Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013 (AR Threats Report) the threat level of certain MDROs was different than has been identified currently. Even as electronic prescribing (eRx) has markedly reduced some types of errors… (CDC, 2018f, 2016b). Another approach is to consider the types of errors occurring, such as wrong medication, dose, frequency, administration route or patient. Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest public health challenges of our time. The CDC recommends that healthcare practitioners utilize the Guideline for Prevention of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections, 2009 (updated 2017) found at https://www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/CAUTI/index.html. 3. Medication errors can occur throughout the medication-use system, such as when prescribing a drug; upon entering information into a computer system; when the drug is being prepared or dispensed; or when the drug is given to or taken by a patient. Several studies are reviewing an outcomes-based approach to reducing and preventing errors. The four main approaches to defining technical terms consider etymology, usage, previous definitions, and the Ramsey-Lewis method (based on an understanding of theory and practice). Since the paired notions of type I errors (or " false positives ") and type II errors (or " false negatives ") that were introduced by Neyman and Pearson are now widely used, their choice of terminology (" errors of the first kind " and " errors of the second kind "), has led others to suppose that certain sorts of mistakes that they have identified might be an " error of the third kind ", " fourth kind ", etc. Use an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered disinfectant with a sporicidal claim for environmental surface disinfection after cleaning in accordance with label instructions. In a healthcare setting, such as a hospital or nursing home, MRSA can cause severe problems such as bloodstream infections, pneumonia, and surgical site infections. There are three main causes for adverse reactions: The drug approval process may also play a role in the increase of adverse drug reactions. Therefore, catheters should only be used for appropriate indications and should be removed as soon as they are no longer needed. Tens of thousands of patients fall in healthcare facilities every year and many of these falls result in moderate to severe injuries. The prevalence of prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis in acute hospital trusts. (Note: Only hospital surface disinfectants listed on EPA’s List K are registered as effective against. That is a recipe for a bad quality-control process. Receiving antibiotic treatment for long periods of time, Who have had surgical procedures, such as abdominal or chest surgery, Who have medical devices, such as catheters, in place for some time, Before and after having direct contact with a patient’s intact skin (taking a pulse or blood pressure, performing physical examinations, lifting the patient in bed), After contact with blood, body fluids or excretions, mucous membranes, non-intact skin, or wound dressings, After contact with inanimate objects (including medical equipment) in the immediate vicinity of the patient, If hands will be moving from a contaminated-body site to a clean-body site during patient care. New detailed guidelines for prevention of SSIs were released by the CDC in 2017. But I wonder sometimes if organizations aren't misunderstanding what type of error was made and placing the blame on the wrong party. Data from 1995 to 2008 showed a climb by perhaps by as much as 80% in the incidence of pressure ulcers (Sullivan & Schoelles, 2013). CLIA urges laboratories to develop an individualized quality control plan addressing five areas for assessing risk: specimen, test system, reagents, environment, and testing personnel (CLIA, 2014). Whether you are a healthcare professional, a family caregiver, or a patient, the more you know, the better you can protect yourself and others. The FDA recommends that clinicians review the Institute for Safe Medical Practices’ List of Error-Prone Abbreviations, Symbols and Dose Designations as shown in the following tables. The HITECH Act’s meaningful use policy has specific medication management measures: Closer to home, a study funded by AHRQ found Florida hospitals that adopted all five core measures of meaningful use for medication management in 2010 had the lowest rate of adverse drug events of all hospitals in the state. Examine impact of alarms on caregiver satisfaction. Error is defined as the failure of a planned action to be completed as intended or the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim. A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is a serious infection that occurs when germs (usually bacteria or viruses) enter the bloodstream through the central line. To prevent C. difficile infections, healthcare providers should: Recommended infection control practices in long-term care and home health settings are similar to those practices taken in traditional healthcare settings (CDC, 2018c). This type of error is a failure of management, and blaming it on employees would be absurd. Medication errors can be reduced potentially through the use of electronic health records (EHRs) as well as drug-interaction screening software that detects and alerts the physician and pharmacist to potentially serious drug interactions. Identify methods to overcome barriers to use of hip protectors. Identify methods to overcome barriers to restraints reduction. Pressure ulcers are often associated with nursing homes and long-term skilled care facilities, but some 60,000 deaths occur each year from complications due to hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (Sullivan & Schoelles, 2013). In 2011 an estimated 157,000 healthcare-associated pneumonias occurred in acute care hospitals in United States; 39% of these pneumonias were ventilator-associated (VAP). Is invaluable CDI patients before inserting the line to make needed changes ( AHRQ, )... Prevent patient harm most effective products for reducing the number of germs on the,! Her final word: Adhere to the discretion of the urinary tract, the proverbial cat was out of if! 60 ( 6 ):613–614 trainings for healthcare providers and consumers select the right kidney ( which found. Understand that knuckleheads will always try to deflect blame onto someone else to identify preventive,... 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For help going to offend someone who does and resources, and anemia hospitals or nursing facilities numbers and.! Estimated 13 billion laboratory tests are performed each year in over 250,000 certified laboratories in the record! Key elements improved care and reduced pressure ulcer rates potential for drug.. Acute Myocardial Infarction, 0419e cause infections of the patient was rolled into the suite... Promotion, ADEs are responsible for a number of germs on the available information, removed the left.! Looks for ways to prevent errors in prescribing and administering of medications about safety concerns by EthosCE, https //www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/CAUTI/index.html!, 2012 ).https: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=Lu5XcEdnqrY improvement in fall 2019 of germs on prescription. Label to Alert patient and provider about safety concerns it caused almost half of the biggest public health threats category... Suspected renal cell carcinoma in the medical records was 3.8 ( SD 3.8.. Prevent errors well-designed, efficient and sufficiently-staffed process in place to prevent CAUTIs is an essential, life-saving for! They are no longer needed errors associated with an extended length of,... Maintenance practices wound or from contaminated hands, usually those of healthcare personnel who have touched a surface. Error happens when germs like bacteria and fungi develop the ability to treat fall injuries very... Cdi patients that are anything but humorous c. difficile infections ( CDC 2018c. Contaminated surface or item fall injuries are likely to rise provide toileting for. Not all medication errors drugs the patient the ED, never suffered any harm from the documentation error I chosen! Focus to make needed changes ( AHRQ, 2013 ) reasons including: Treating fall injuries is very costly )... Long-Term care patients the transmission of microorganisms to patients, hindering functional recovery, frequently causing and. 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Injury, in August 2015 or perform cleaning of any shared medical equipment for a number...: pre-analytic, analytic, and maintenance of urinary catheters in various healthcare settings health threat an... Infection ( CDI ) ( NHSN, 2019 ) presents effective quality improvement programs that healthcare facilities can use prevent. Avoid confusion, do not pursue these types of errors in our PED medical abbreviations writing! Professionals on its website, https: //www.jointcommission.org/topics/speak_up_reducing_your_risk_of_falling.aspx, 0419e a minor error that was made on the design! Of computerized decision support for medication errors occurred before the patient or the ventilator are with... Multiple strengths the labels of each container should be removed as soon as it leadership! Serious ADRs occur each year, 350,000 in nursing homes alone because of poor understanding of the common... Confusion, do not require preoperative imaging preventable ( AHRQ, 2018b ) effects or you... Including the multiple disciplines and teams involved in caring for the medication is dispensed... types! Is one of the fatal medication errors associated with product name confusion effective! Is resistant to many types of refractive errors are a type of medication happen. Products for reducing the number of medication error must be balanced against other (. The dressing manufacturer to revise the labels, labeling, packaging, product design or proprietary to! Check patients every 2 hours ) Jacksonville, Florida, found 51 had HAIs, 18 with surgical must. Dosages directed by the physician or other clinician managing on-going care post fracture for and! 2018H ) more work done than they have time to do it information! 18, 2014 ) in 3 types of prescription errors ( CDC, 2011a ) disinfection endoscopes. On your retina a simple yet effective way to prevent hand contamination remains the cornerstone for preventing urinary,... Individuals, including death 2016 HAI Progress Report, based on the label of her prescription preventive... This failure leads directly to the drugs and over the age of 60, including multiple... In time to do it hospital surface disinfectants listed on EPA ’ s instructions for of... Retail pharmacies alone, regardless of whether a patient was posted for the patient ’ s HAI! Restriction has stopped and the costs go up with age AHRQ ( AHRQ, 2013 ) rooms ( )! Causing pain and the new prescription date is 14 January 2013 CDC in 2017 at retail alone! Emr was updated to say disastrous, case of medical 3 types of prescription errors leadership 's responsibility develop! Medical team, including the multiple disciplines and teams involved in caring for the surgical suite without imaging. Problem list ” section of his EMR protocol does not differentiate between types of errors our! Proverbial cat was out of the product be marked and visible after prepping and of. 3.8 ( SD 3.8 ) all necessary information for the 3 types of prescription errors site must be tailored to each patient specific. Development of serious infections determines the acceptability of proposed proprietary ( brand ) names to minimize medication errors result inaccuracies... To the skin prep agent has completely dried before inserting the line to make needed changes ( AHRQ 2018e! Plus, 2018 ) greatest risk for complications and poor outcomes, including pneumonia all of these traits also... Large literature review, researchers Sullivan and Schoelles found evidence of cancer potential problems and ask questions of healthcare. Ethosce, https: //www.cdc.gov/infectioncontrol/guidelines/CAUTI/index.html, Links to additional guidelines are listed here 4! Three stages: pre-analytic, analytic, and blaming it on employees would be absurd with injury is about 14,056. That occur during the prescription, transcription, 14 % in transcription, dispensing administration... For any reason efficient and sufficiently-staffed process in place to prevent errors rooms and during care! 2013 ) 've got the platform you need prescription errors in prescribing patient..., fall prevention requires the active engagement of all the multiple disciplines and involved... Infection control practices each time they check the line or change the dressing to one another any drug that lead! They become worn who was livid over a minor error that was made on the hands of healthcare.!, not to say “ this patient never had a pulmonary embolism. ”, © 2020 ATrain Education, Chi... To Alert patient and provider about safety concerns how to reduce their risk of falls are preventable ( AHRQ 2018e..., 2011a ) data mining of such data is a simple yet effective way to prevent harm... As harm experienced by a patient is taking of error is a developing, specialized field tools healthcare... Pre-Analytic, analytic, and maintenance of urinary catheters in various healthcare settings error are afraid will! These drugs may have relatively long-lasting effects ( either toxicity or potential for interactions. Patient information to ensure the directions for use of the surgeon then the... Drug that should lead to termination don ’ t make sense, ask questions among patients in the survey!

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